Its aim is to identify good practices, lessons learned and success factors based on robust evidence. Mutual learning exercises have addressed topics such as the Administration and monitoring of R&D tax incentives, Evaluation of business R&D grant schemes and the Evaluation of complex public private partnerships, among others.
With a view to improve efficiency of public funding in research and addressing major societal challenges, Member States have identified the need to improve the alignment and interoperability of their national programmes. Building on the Lund Declaration, the ERAC Joint Programming Group (GPC) has launched an MLE to address the need to foster national coordination by looking at national preconditions for participation in JPP (Joint Programming Process) / JPI (Joint Programming Initiatives), national governance structures and communication flows and visibility.
Research and Innovation (R&I) grants remain one of the cornerstones of governments’ efforts to promote business R&I in Europe. The purpose of this MLE was to facilitate the exchange of views and experiences between volunteering Member States on the evaluation of business R&D grant schemes, taking into account the specific contexts in which these evaluations take place.
This MLE addressed the issue of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) which are strategic (often virtual) centres for promoting sector- or challenge-based research involving multiple partners and promoting public-private collaboration in STI. The project allowed for the exchange on the ways in which participating (and outside) countries have addressed the evaluation of such PPPs. Evaluation data that exists on the various types of PPPs provided vitally important piece of information for the exercise.
This pilot MLE focused on identifying specific challenges for policy-makers regarding the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of four policy instruments: Research and Innovation fiscal incentives, e.g. tax credits; financial instruments (loans, guarantees, equity); outputs of business research and innovation support grants, and public-private-partnerships in the form of joint funding of research and innovation activities.
Performance-based Research Funding Systems (PRFS) are one of the mechanisms through which countries try to increase the performance of their public sector research systems. The nature of these systems – based on peer reviews, metrics or a combination of both – varies considerably among countries. The MLE will provide a learning opportunity for countries willing to better understand the advantages and drawbacks of various options, improve ongoing PRFS and deepen the assessments of the impact of different systems.
Differences exist across EU Member States with regard to the administration and control of the R&D tax incentives systems, notably in relation to the use of R&D definitions (stemming from e.g. Frascati manual or EU block exemption regulation), the interpretation/implementation of those definitions, the eligibility of costs, etc. This MLE was an opportunity to investigate those various topics which so far had not been discussed at this level of details in any other forum and to learn from each other on possible approaches to tackle those issues.
The purpose of the MLE on innovation-enhancing procurement is to set up an EU knowledge-sharing service on innovation-enhancing procurement, encouraging mutual-learning, identifying good practices and providing advice in the field. The MLE aims to support Member States in designing, implementing and/or evaluating different policy instruments in relation to innovation-enhancing procurement.
Reflecting the priority subjects mentioned by the Member States at the call for interest of July 2016, this first MLE on Open Science will address the national policies and practices relating to the following two issues: (1) Altmetrics, understood as alternative (i.e. non-traditional) metrics that cover not just citation of articles but also various forms of social media shares, web-downloads or any other measure of the qualities and impact of research outcomes; and (2) Incentives and rewards for researchers to engage in Open Science activities.
In recent decades, some EU Member States, particularly the Nordic countries, have invested in high-quality data infrastructures to capture the outcomes attributable to research and innovation (R&I) grants to businesses. While quantitative methods have become more and more sophisticated, a simultaneous interest in studying more qualitative, behavioural aspects can be observed.
The MLE will focus on exchanges of national practice at the operational level in relation to how best to support national participation in EU framework programmes, as well as how best to use ESIF and exploit synergies at the national level to build up a knowledge economy.