CIFRE was launched in 1981 to increase research activities in French enterprises. It aims to encourage mobility of students and researchers. It allows a student to complete his PhD research in a private enterprise. By this means technological research of enterprises can be reinforced, facilitating access of enterprises to skilled personnel and ensuring that the future skill base will correspond to the innovation needs of enterprises. The budget in 2010 was €47.8m. 1,350 new CIFRE contracts were signed in 2012 (MESR).