The country profiles aim to provide an operational tool for stakeholders and policy-makers to support the framing of research and innovation (R&I) policies and to facilitate the monitoring of performance, on the basis of a holistic economic and indicator-based analysis.
The challenge of structural change to upgrade knowledge in the context of industrial globalisation
Slovakia set up a national R&D intensity target of 1.2% by 2020. During the period 2007-2013, R&D intensity increased from 0.45% to 0.89% of GDP but remains one of the lowest in the EU, due in particular to an extremely low level of business expenditure on R&D. To reach the national target it must raise its annual growth in both public and private R&D investments.
The strengths in Slovakia’s R&I system are found in human resources for R&I and in attracting business R&D investments from abroad. There has been a significant increase above the EU average in the number of new graduates in science and engineering and at PhD level as an alternative to unemployment for some tertiary graduates considering the shrinking numbers being employed in the business sector. However, there is need to enhance the quality and efficiency of the higher education system, and to increase the excellence and internationalization of its universities, as the latter are not visible in major international rankings, and given the low number of scientific outputs.