This Manual is intended to provide guidelines for the measurement of Human Resources devoted to Science and Technology (HRST) and the analysis of such data. It has been prepared in close co-operation between the OECD and the DGXII and Eurostat of the European Commission, other OECD directorates (notably DEELSA), UNESCO and the International Labour Office (ILO) and with the support of national experts. The text was discussed at specialist workshops at the OECD in 1992 and 1993 and then submitted to the Group of National Experts on Science and Technology Indicators (NESTI) at its meeting in Canberra in April 1994. In recognition of the hospitality of the Australian authorities in organising the meeting, a suggestion was made and approved by NESTI that the guidelines should henceforth be known as the "Canberra Manual". The Group recommended that the text be submitted to the Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy for derestriction after incorporation of the proposals of the meeting and subsequent written comments and after professional editing. After these amendments had been made, the document was approved by the Committee and is now made available to the public under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD.