1. Overview of the R&I system
Turkey has population of 77.695m, which would account for approximately 15% of the EU-28 population . By April 2015, the 2014 total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Turkey was estimated to be as €720,640m, which ranks the country 18th in the list of world economies. The GDP per capita in 2014 was €8,562.9. It is approximately one third of EU-28 average which is €27,300 in 2014.
R&D intensity which shows the ratio of Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) to GDP is 1.01% in 2014 while it is estimated to be 2.03% for EU-28. GERD increased in Turkey in 2014 compared to the previous year by 18.8%. 50.9% of total R&D expenditures was financed by business enterprises in 2014 while it was 48.9% in 2013. This source of funding was followed by the government sector by 26.3%, the higher education sector by 18.4%, other national sources by 3.4% and by foreign funds by 1.1%. In 2014 the share of business enterprises sector in total R&D expenditure was 49.8%. This sector was followed by the higher education sector (40.5%) and public sector (9.7%).