1. Overview of the R&I system
India is the fourth largest economy and is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. After witnessing economic growth rate at an average of 8.3% per year for 2004/05 to 2011/12,India’s growth rate decelerated during 2012 and 2015 to around 6.4% per year. India is spending around 0.9% of GDP for R&D and this figure has stagnated over the last decade. Government sources account for two-thirds of GERD and one-third by business enterprises. India’s national innovation system is quite intimately integrated with high-level political system. Under the overall administrative and executive control of the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO), the structure of the S&T system operates in a coordinated and consultative mode.India’s leading S&T sectors are space research, nuclear energy, defence R&D, pharma and agricultural research. In recent years, the business enterprise sector assumed considerable importance with global comparative advantage in pharmaceuticals, automotive, software, telecommunications and biotechnology. The other sector, which witnessed robust growth and expansion, is telecommunications with more than 950 million mobile subscribers and more than 200 million internet users. The new government in 2014 identified a number of National Flagship Programmes such as: Make in India; Digital India; Skill India; Smart Cities and Urban Development; Clean India; and Creating New Infrastructure. These techno-economic programmes have the main objective of creating employment and aid the pattern of inclusive growth.