Title: Challenges for R&I policy-making in Hungary
Fostering innovation in domestic enterprises. Small domestic firms lack their own funding for R&D and often wait for public support in order to launch new R&I projects. Recognising this issue, a large number of measures have been put in place to support private research and innovation activities, however the statistics has not reflected these investments so far.
Enhancing the cooperation between science, higher education and business. Several programmes were launched to support the cooperation between science, higher education and business in the past decade. However, they had usually short life-span to foster the achievement of significant results. The new Higher Education and Industry Cooperation Centres (FIEKs) have been established for a span of at least four years and it is expected that they would create long-standing bridges between academia and business which requires changes in the culture and attitudes in both spheres.
Supporting the demand side of innovation. Hungary has had little experience so far in pre-commercial public procurement (PcP). In fact, the National RDI Strategy 2013-2020 identified the enlivening of the R&D demand as one of the key issues in the development of the Hungarian RDI system. Although the National Reform Plan 2016 foresaw a PcP programme, this planned call was not published in the portfolio of RDI calls in 2017 due to the lack of demand from the public sector side.
Supplying the R&I system with high-skilled human resources. Both the share of science and engineering (S&E) graduates and the rate of participation in life-long learning are rather low in international comparison and a significant gap might be opening between the supply and demand for qualified S&E personnel in the future. There are several initiatives to improve the situation but it will take several years to reverse the trends.