1. Overview of the R&I system
Brazil is currently facing a political and economic crisis with an impact on the investments in R&I. Since 2014, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation has a cut 37% of its budget. From 2012 to 2016, four Science, Technology and Innovation Ministers were nominated as a reflection of the political instability. Additionally, in May 2016 the merger between the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation and the Ministry of Communications was announced, as part of the strategy to streamline the public administration, reducing from 32 to 23 the number of ministries. In 2013, whereas R&D intensity (GERD/GDP) was 1.24% (up from 1.15 % in the previous year), the share of private sector R&D in 2013, was 42.3%. The share of public sector (federal and state) R&D increased to 57.7%. Overall investment in S&T was 1.66% of GDP in 2013. In recent years, there were significant advances in the STI policy including the improvement in the number and qualification of human resources has and the R&D infrastructure expansion. Actions aimed at establishing guidelines for a "national strategic framework" are taking place in the country. Brazil has recently published the new STI Strategy (2016-2019). The fundamental mission of the strategy is to promote the STI as one of the structural axes of national development. In this context, the strategy highlights the need to strengthen the link between STI policy with other government policies and between the various actors. Brazil has clear national competitive advantages when it comes to social and biodiversity aspects and its potential for the production of commodities. The country is at the scientific and technological forefront in research and agricultural production in tropical regions as well as in the control, prevention and treatment of tropical and neglected diseases. Other areas with relative technological expertise are the aeronautical sector, oil and gas, and nuclear.